Integrated Underground Solutions for Compact Metropolitan Cities
5 - 7 November 2018, Hong Kong
Space in Hong Kong
Hilly terrain and a compact city. Urban underground
space and cavern development provide solutions to the land shortage problem.
Island West Refuse Transfer Station Rock Cavern Facility (opened 1996)
built to meet a local demand for waste management where there was limited surface sites.
Facilities in Cavern
NIMBY Facilities in Rock Caverns to improve surface visual impacts and odourcontrol to
nearby residents have been well received. Stanley Sewage Treatment Works shown here has been
operating for over 20 years with some nearby residents unaware that it is operating in a nearby hillside.
Opportunities for Rock Cavern Development
Hong Kong’s hilly terrain, good underlying rocks, demand for land and high property values provides good opportunities to build or relocate landuses underground.
Distribution of Land in Hong Kong
With limited developable land areas and a desire to protect our existing country parks and special areas it is important to ensure that our land is used efficiently.
Opportunities for Urban Underground Development
Reclamation, underground metro stations, combined with hot / wet summer weather and high land values provide potential connectivity and space creation options to ease urban living.
Recent Cavern and Underground Space Studies
The Government has initiated various studies to explore the options and potential for rock cavern and urban underground space development.
Existing Tsim Sha Tsui Underground Network
Two major underground metro stations are connected by underground pedestrian subways in the Kowloon Peninsula, providing easy access to various developments.
Rock Cavern Stations
There are now 7 underground rock cavern MTR metro stations that service over 1M passengers per day.
Private Sector Connection to MTR Station
There are various direct connections to existing shopping malls and private developments.
The city has over 60km of cable tunnels to protect it sensitive infrastructure against lightning strikes and steep terrain landslides.
Soon to complete more than 70km of highway tunnels there are 3 harbour road tunnel crossings and numerous tunnels through our hilly terrain.
Deep Sewer Tunnels
Various deep sewer tunnels of the Harbour Area Treatment Scheme have been built to clean up the harbour and improve seawater quality.
Flood Protection Tunnels
Flood diversion schemes have been built and are operating to protect downtown areas of Hong Kong against flooding.
Flood Storage Tanks
Various flood storage tanks built close to previous flooding blackspots to control surge in surface water runoff.
Water Transfer Tunnels
Over 200km of water transfer tunnels deliver water to various water treatment works and distribute water from our own reservoirs.
Basement Retail and Shopping
Numerous underground basement shopping and retail developments in the city.
Underground Car Parking
HK Government provide development incentives to promote the construction of underground car parks.
The proposed West Kowloon Cultural District will maximize and enhance the use of surface land by transferring transport underground.
Combined Utility Tunnels
The Hong Kong Science Park has a combined utility tunnel of more than 450m to service the development.
District Cooling Schemes
District Cooling Schemes proposed for some new development areas.
Strategic Cavern Areas
A cavern master plan identifies 48 strategic cavern areas to support cavern development in the city.
New Development Areas Underground Strategies
Recent studies have identified underground landuses that could be considered for future new towns and underground development to enhance future town function.
Underground Explosives Storage
Explosives are stored underground in rock caverns and bunkers in remote areas of the city providing security and safety for the public.
Underground Water Service Reservoirs
A recent development transferred some service reservoirs underground to allow better surface development and save environmental impacts on nearby slopes.